Treatment & Procedures

Knee and Joint Replacement Hospital in Chennai

Knee replacement surgery is a commonly performed operation for severe knee symptoms usually caused by osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is a gradual process in which the surfaces of the knee become damaged and wear away. The bones on either side of the knee joint are usually covered with a hard, smooth layer of cartilage that protects it and allows the surfaces to glide smoothly over each other. This surface can be damaged by injury or general wear and tear. When the process becomes advanced the underlying bone is uncovered. This causes pain, swelling and stiffness because the surface is no longer smooth and the nerve endings in the bone are exposed.

Osteoarthritis of the knee is a very common condition. It can occur in young people following injuries, but most commonly occurs in older people. Factors that cause osteoarthritis include previous knee injury, obesity, and a family history of osteoarthritis.

What knee injuries can Knee Replacement Surgery treat?

Although a majority of knee replacement surgery is done to treat osteoarthritis of the knee, the surgical treatment can be used to treat a knee that is affected by a range of conditions, including :

  • Severe osteoarthritis of the knee
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Ligament damage or infection that leads to osteoarthritis
  • Diseases such as gout and pseudogout
  • Avascular necrosis
  • Bone growth disorders or bone dysplasias

There are four main types of knee replacement surgery:

Total knee replacement. This is the most common form. Your surgeon replaces the surfaces of the thigh bone and shin bone that connects to the knee.

Partial knee replacement : If arthritis affects only one side of your knee, this surgery may be a possibility. However, it’s only right for you if you have strong knee ligaments. Partial knee replacement can be performed through a smaller cut than is needed for total knee replacement.

Kneecap replacement : This replaces only the under-surface of the kneecap, but some surgeons advise against this procedure, because total knee replacement surgery has a higher rate of success.

Complex (or revision) knee replacement : This procedure may be needed if you have very severe arthritis or if you’ve already had more than one knee replacement surgery.

Hip Replacement Surgeries:

What are the different types of hip replacement surgery?

There are many different types of replacement joints, sometimes called implants, that can be used in a hip replacement operation, and different ways of fixing them. Your surgeon will explain the different options and which they think will be most suitable for you.

Most hip replacement operations are total hip replacements, which consist of two parts. One part is shaped like a ball on a stem and replaces the head of the thigh bone, with the stem inserted into the thigh bone. The other part is shaped like a bowl, which replaces the socket in the pelvis.

The stem of a hip replacement is always made of metal, but different combinations of metal, plastic or ceramic materials are used for the ball and the socket :

A metal ball with a plastic socket (metal-on-plastic) is the most widely used combination.

A ceramic ball may be used either with a plastic socket (ceramic-on-plastic) or with a ceramic socket (ceramic-on-ceramic). These combinations are often used in younger, more active patients.

The implants also come in different shapes and sizes and your surgeon will select the one that best matches your natural hip. They’ll also take into account how active you hope to be in the future. A larger diameter implant allows a greater range of movement, so may be the best option if you expect to take part in quite vigorous exercise.

Very occasionally, if ready-made implants aren’t right for you, your surgeon may have one specially made.

Often, the artificial joint components are fixed into the bone with acrylic cement, but it’s becoming more common for either one part or both parts to be inserted without cement, especially in more active patients. Where only one part is fixed with cement (usually the socket) it’s known as a hybrid hip replacement.

If cement isn’t being used, the surfaces of the implants are either roughened or else specially coated with a material made from minerals similar to those in natural bone. This provides a good surface for the bone to ‘grow onto’. Bone is an active, living tissue and, as long as it’s strong and healthy, it’ll continue to renew itself over time and provide a long-lasting bond.